Computer : Development of computer

Computer : development of computer

Computer is a man made electronic machines that chance the way we work, live and play . A machine that has done all this and more , now exist in nearly every business and one out of two every two household .

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Development of computer image


The invention is computer . The computer is one of the most powerful innovation in human history . The electronic computer has been around for over half century ,but it's ancestors abacus has been changed the our lifestyle . from the first wooden abacus to the latest high speed micro proceser , the computer has changed nearly every aspect of people lives for the better . With the use of computer , people are suddenly able to perform a large number amount of computations at dazzling speed . Information can be crunched , organised and display in the blink of an eye . Things that were only dreams a few years ago are now possible due to computer.


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Evolution of computer 

1 abacus :   the abacus is the one of the earliest known computer device . It is a tool that helped in calculating answer of arithmetic problems . It is a simlpy a wooden rack holding parallel wires on which beads . The abacus was developed in China about 5000 years ago. The abacus was so successful that it's use spread from China to many other countries .


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Evolution of computer image



2 Pascale calculater : the first real mechanical calculater was invented by a French scientists and mathematician Blaise Pascal , around 1645 . The device was constructed by interlocking gears represting the number 0 to 9 . It was able to only to additional and substraction , so it's called adding .

3  Analytical Engine :   in 1801 , jaseph Marie jacquard perfect of the idea of the automated weaving loom. Using holes punched into a series of connect cards , jacquard was able to control the weaving of fabrics . The jacquard loom not only cut back on the amount of human labor , but also allowed  for pattern to be stored now on cards and to utilize over and over again to achieve same product . In 1820  Charles Babbage , a British mathematician and inventor , designed and built the mechanical calculater and the difference engine on principal that anticipated the modern electronic computer . The concept of Bebbage put forward was eventually used by engineering in the development of first computer prototype . For this reason Charles Bebbage failed to built a fully operational model of difference or Analytical Engine . In 1842 Lady Lovelace wrote a demonstration programs her contribution to binary arithmetic was later used by John Von Neumann in development of the modern computer . So she is often regards as " first computer program " .


4 herman Hollerith and punch card : 

 In  1890 the United States census bureau asked Herman Hollerith to find a way to speed up the process a census data . Herman Hollerith created punch cards that resembles today computer cards . He also invented the Hollerith 80 column code and tabulation machine .

5 first electronic computer ( ENIAC ) : 

Howard Aiken , with his colleagues at Harvard and with some assistance from international business machines he had machines he had built by 1942  the mark I the world first program controlled calculators , an early from of a digital computer in 1944 John mauchley , an American physicist and J. Presper Eckert  and American engineering , proposed an electronic digital  computer , called an electronic Numerical intregator and computer (ENIAC) , and completed it in 1946 which is regarded as the first successful general digital number .


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Development of computer image


6 stored program concept : According to John Von Neumann concept , the operating instructions and data used in processing should be stored inside the computer . Whenever necessary the computer would have the capability to modify these programs instructions , during their e(delay storage Automatic computer )  which was developed at Cambridge university . The computer was capable of storing a sequence of instruction , the equivalent of the first computer .

7 UNIVAC 1 : it is short form of universal automatic computer  in 1951  it was indroduced and become first commercially available computer . The UNIVAC 1 was characteristics of the first generation of computer .




Development      approximate dates 



Abacus                               2000-3000 b.c

Pascal calculators.               1645

Jacquard loom.                     1801

Bebbage analytical             1834 - 1871
Engine

Herman Tabulation           1887 - 1896
machine

Howard Aiken mark I.       1937 - 1944

ENIAC                                     1943 -1950

John Von Neumann.             1945 - 1852

EDSAC                                      1946 -1952

UNIVAC 1.                               1951 - 1954






Computer generation :


The history of the development of computer it's often referred to in tracking the difference generation of computing devices . Each  generation of computer is characterized by a major technological development that fundamental changed the way computer operator , resulting in increased smaller , cheaper , more powerful and efficient and reliable device .


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Computer Generation images




First computer generation ( 1942 -1955 ) : 

The first generation computer were entirely electronic . They used vaccum tubes to store instructions . Magnetic drums were used for a memory
. They were often enormous , taking of entire rooms . They were very expensive to operative and in addition to using a great deal of electricity generated a lot of heat which often needed expansive air conditioning first generation computer relied on machines language  ( 1s and 0s ) , the lowest level programming language understood by computer , to perform operations , and they could solve only one problem at time .The UNIVAC 1 , ENIAC and Mark 1 computer are examples of the first generation computing device . The UNIVAC  was the first commercial electronic computer . This machine was developed specifically for scientific and military purpose but it was decided to a business clients , the U.S  Census Bureau in 1951 .


Second generation ( 1955-1964 ) : 

In second generation of computer solid state , transistor replace vaccum tubes in computer . It was invented in Bell Laboratory . The transistor was far superior than the vaccum tubes , allowing computer to become smaller , faster , cheaper , more energy efficient and more reliable . To represent data a magnetic core is used in computer . At about the same time magentic tape and disk began to be widely used as an auxiliary storage . Megntic disk was layered by iron oxide . Magnetic disk made possible direct access of data .
As a result of these developments , a significant increase in the speed and proccessing and capabilities of computer was achieved . Business began to use computer in increasing number and new high level programming language also developed at this time , such as early version of COBOL and FORTAN.



Third generation ( 1965- 1974 ):


In further development in electronic brought further reduction in size , greater reliability , speed and lower cost computer , integrated circuit (IC) replace the transistor , which was developed by j.s Kilbi . This was the hallmark of third generation of computer . This. Development is known as LSI ( large scale integration ) and it's rafer to the ability to compress large number of integrated circuit on a single silicon chip . There is also VLSI ( very large scale integration ) .
Another Development that changed the way people use computer was time sharing . A time shared computer allows many users , each working at a separate input/output terminal , to it use it at time the same time .
User interacted with third generation computer through keywords and monitoring and interfaced with the operating system , which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory . Computer for the first time became accessible to mass. User could use software according to their need because software and hardware were available separately .

Fourth generation ( 1975 - up till now )



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Fourth Generation computer image


Fourth generation computer continued to be characterized by chip's  that can contain increasing number of item . This further  minituriziation of components , refered to as ULSI ( ultra large scale integration ) , resulted in increased speed , greater speed , greater reliability and enormous storage capacities for current computer . By using  LSI technology , microprocessor was produced .this microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computer , as thousands of integrated circuit were built onto single silicon chip . computer of first generation that filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand . The Intel 4004  chip , development in 1971 ,located all the components of the computer from the CPU and memory to input /output  control on a signal chip . In 1981 IBM introduce the Macintosh . Microprocessor also moved out of the realm of desktop , computer and into many areas of life . Everyday product such as vehicle , microwave oven and electronic games etc. Began to use microprocessor more and more .
As these small computer became more powerful , they could be linked together to from a network , which eventually led to the development of the internet . fourth generation computer also saw the development of GUII the mouse and household device .

Fifth generation ( present and beyond )
 :

Unlike all other generation computer , present of computer is characterized by the use of the technique used to reduce complex programming . This technique is known as artificial intelligence ( AI) . Fifth generation of the computer device based on artificial intelligence , are still in development , though there are some application , such as voice recognition , there are being used today .

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