what is Microsoft Windows

What is Microsoft Windows

Microsoft windows
Microsoft windows

Microsoft Windows is an Operating System and g u i graphical user interface bracket produced by Microsoft the software company polished of Bill Gates is the the chairman of Microsoft which he founded with Paul Allen. Nova days approximately 90 per cent of all personal computer are running on Windows police store it was introduced as a g you that simplified the OS commands and task by converting programs and commands to icons full stop in in 1983 e Microsoft announced the development of Windows and 4 is its opening operating system MS Dos which has developed for IBM PC and compatible computer since 1981. The first independent version of Microsoft Windows version 1.0 released on 20 November 1985 little popularity police stop it was originally going to be called interface manager but Roland Hudson the head of marketing at Microsoft converts the company that's the name world be more appealing to consumers Windows 1.0 was not a complete operating system but it was a improved 1 sentence MS-DOS. The first independent version of Microsoft Windows 2 version launch on 9 December 1987 became slightly more popular than its process there's Microsoft Windows version 1 because it had new graphical application excel and word Police Stop Microsoft Windows go to measure success when Atlas pagemaker appeared in a Windows version Police Stop Microsoft Windows got major success adults pagemaker afraid in a Windows version. At the start it crowd run on machine tools police top it was beginning of the success of Windows. After that our lunch do many version of Microsoft Windows such as a 2.0 x 2.03 3.0 BTC. Microsoft Windows 3.0 released in 1990 that scored significant successful stop in this version Windows introduce multitasking and virtual memory better than older d o is. After the Microsoft Windows became the most popular operating system. Some popular version of Microsoft Windows are Microsoft Windows 95 in 1995 Microsoft Windows 98 in 1998. Microsoft Windows AV in 2000 Microsoft Windows XP in 200 4 . Microsoft Windows Vista in in 2007 . MS Windows related terms graphical user interface polyester uses graphics or pictures to help the user native and access programs .


What is Microsoft Windows in computer

 A graphical user interface allow users create a shortcut. Point one click on the desktop which the right button of the mouse. 2nd select the option shortcut on the new menu Police Stop a dialogue box will appear so that we can indicate the program for which we want the shortcut created. Click on the browse button to find the program. Select the desired unit and look for the file path of folder you want. After selecting the file or folder click on Ok. Click next Police Stop type a name for shortcut police top click finish . Taskbar the Taskbar is a long horizontal bar at the bottom of the escort of and it is a visible almost all the time. It has four main sections Police Stop the start button which open that start menu Police Stop the quick Launch toolbar which lets start program with one click Police Stop the middle section which shows program and document we have opened and allow us to quickly Switch between. The notification area on the the far right side of the Taskbar. Which include a clock and icon that communicate that status of certain programs and computer setting Police Stop to do any change in Taskbar we select the option in start menu and click on Taskbar and start menu in sub menu of setting that opens the Taskbar and start menu properties. Taskbar and start menu properties Windows has several option which we selected o w n choice. Look the taskbar we can keep the Taskbar in oneplus by looking at which can prevent essential moving or raising if I unlock it we can move it to the bottom side or top of the desk cut off. Right click an empty space on the Taskbar if lock the Taskbar his check mark next to it Taskbar is locked Police Stop if it does not have a check mark click on the lock Taskbar to to lock the taskbar. Auto hide the taskbar the Taskbar is usually located the bottom of your screen. We can hide the Taskbar to create more space. How to hide the Taskbar checkbox. Select the auto hide Taskbar checkbox if we didn't see the Taskbar anywhere on the screen it might be hidden. If the the Taskbar is hide and point to where we last saved it is show it again . if we cannot remember where we last save it right pointing to the bottom of the screen first and then to the side or top of the screen necessary.

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Why Upgrade to Windows 8?
Perhaps you’re not fazed by the Windows 8 Modern UI, or by Microsoft embracing the touchscreen interface.
Even so, here are five reasons to consider making the move to Windows 8:
1. Bargain Price
Most people don’t go out and buy Windows. The preferred method of upgrading for both small businesses
and consumers is to acquire the latest operating system by attrition when it’s time to get a new PC. Of
course, the price of purchasing Windows by itself—even the discounted upgrade price—has always been a
deterrent as well.
However, with Windows 8, Microsoft is slashing the price to a mere $40 until 2013. For anyone still running
Windows XP, the upgrade to Windows 8 should be a no-brainer. Those who have already switched to Win-
dows 7 have a reason to switch, too: Windows 8 performs better than Windows 7 even on existing hardware.
6
Why Upgrade to Windows 8?
2. Staying in Sync
Microsoft developed Windows 8 with the cloud in mind. If you log in to Windows 8 using a Microsoft account, your
apps and preferences are synced to the cloud. When you log in to Windows 8 on another system, those settings
and preferences are downloaded as well so you get a consistent Windows 8 experience no matter where you are.
3. Refresh / Reset
Refresh gets you a mostly fresh start. Your personal files and configuration settings are retained, along with any
Modern UI apps from the Windows 8 app store. But, all other applications are removed, and Windows 8 is oth-
erwise returned to default factory settings. A list of the removed software is placed on the desktop so you know
what’s missing and you can begin the process of re-installing them cleanly to try and isolate which program
might have been causing you problems.
Reset is more drastic. Reset is a feature you might use if you want to decommission a system to re-provision to
another user, or if you plan to sell or donate the PC. Reset wipes out everything and returns Windows 8 to the
way it was “out of the box” so to speak.
4. Storage Spaces
Have you ever run out of space on your hard drive? It may not be as common as it once was thanks to 1TB and
2TB drives, but it can still happen—especially when storing mass amounts of digital photos or video clips.
Storage Spaces solves that dilemma by allowing you to group multiple drives under a single logical drive letter.
If you start to run out of space, you could simply throw another USB hard drive on the system to expand your storage.
Of course, if a USB drive storing crucial data crashes, it could pose a problem. Windows 8 Storage Spaces has a
solution for that as well. Microsoft employs a software-based RAID system to protect data and ensure that your
data remains available even in the event of a hardware failure.
5. File History
Windows 8 has new tools to protect your important data from corruption or accidental changes or deletions.
File History periodically scans file locations like Libraries, Desktop, Favorites, and Contacts to identify any changes.
File History stores a copy of the changed file in an alternate location designated by you. File History will main-
tain a complete history of the changes made to personal data over time. With File History, you’ll be able to go
back in time and easily reverse any unwanted changes
Oh, and did we mention the bargain price? The $40 price tag is a temporary offer from Microsoft that’s set to
expire in January. Even if you already have Windows 7 and you’re happy with it, spend the $40 on Windows 8
while you can and just file away the OS until you need it.
8
How to Upgrade to Windows 8
Upgrading to a new operating system is always exciting. But if you don’t take the proper precautions, you risk
losing your documents, photos, and other important data. So whether you are upgrading your computer from
an existing copy of Windows or starting fresh with Windows 8, protect yourself from needless aggravation by
following the steps outlined in our handy upgrade guide.
Make Sure Windows 8 Works With Your Hardware
First, verify that Windows 8 is compatible with your current hardware. Microsoft identifies the following mini-
mum requirements for the OS: a 1GHz CPU, a graphics chipset (integrated or discrete) capable of running
DirectX 9, and a monitor with a screen resolution of 1024 by 768. Also, the 32-bit version of Windows 8 requires
at least 1GB of RAM and 16GB of space on your hard drive, while the 64-bit version requires at least 2GB of RAM
and 20GB of space. If you’re already running Windows Vista or Windows 7, you can probably upgrade to Win-
dows 8 without much trouble.
Next, you need to verify that your favorite programs and PC peripherals are compatible with Windows 8. To do
so, open your Web browser and navigate to Microsoft’s Compatibility Center for Windows 8 Release Preview (at
go.pcworld.com/compatibilityctr). Here you can type in the name of your keyboard, printer, or other PC acces-
sory to see whether it will operate under Windows 8. In some cases the Compatibility Center may provide a link
to driver software that you need to download.
Check Windows Device Manager for the full list of devices you use. If you’re upgrading from Windows XP, select
Start, right-click My Computer, choose Properties, click the Hardware tab, and then click the Device Manager but-
ton. If you’re using Vista or Windows 7, click Start, type device manager, and press <Enter>. You needn’t verify
that all your devices are compatible, but make sure that your display, audio, and networking devices will work
with Windows 8.
Which version of Windows 8 should you install? Four versions are available: Windows 8, Windows 8 Pro, Win-
dows 8 Enterprise, and Windows 8 RT. Enterprise is meant for business enterprise use, and RT is designed spe-
cifically for Windows tablets, so that leaves most PC owners with two options: Windows 8 and Windows 8 Pro.
The Pro version includes a few extra features that serious PC users may appreciate (such as BitLocker encryp-
tion and the ability to use the Remote Desktop feature as both client and host). If you run Windows 7 Profes-
sional or Ultimate, and you want to keep your data intact, your only option is to upgrade to Windows 8 Pro.
If you don’t mind losing your data, you can perform a fresh install of Windows 8, and that’s the next decision
you face: whether to perform a fresh install of Windows 8 or simply to upgrade Windows. The upgrade process
is faster and easier than performing a fresh install, and Windows will automatically preserve your settings, ap-
plications, and data for use in Windows 8. Of course, you’ll also carry over a lot of excess baggage in the form
of old data, backups, and applications that have fallen into disuse and now just take up hard drive space. If you
prefer a clean start, opt for a fresh install of Windows 8; but be sure to back up all your important data and criti-
cal device drivers first, so you can get back to work as soon as possible. This guide applies to both installation
procedures (except where noted).
8
How to Upgrade to Windows 8
Upgrading to a new operating system is always exciting. But if you don’t take the proper precautions, you risk
losing your documents, photos, and other important data. So whether you are upgrading your computer from
an existing copy of Windows or starting fresh with Windows 8, protect yourself from needless aggravation by
following the steps outlined in our handy upgrade guide.
Make Sure Windows 8 Works With Your Hardware
First, verify that Windows 8 is compatible with your current hardware. Microsoft identifies the following mini-
mum requirements for the OS: a 1GHz CPU, a graphics chipset (integrated or discrete) capable of running
DirectX 9, and a monitor with a screen resolution of 1024 by 768. Also, the 32-bit version of Windows 8 requires
at least 1GB of RAM and 16GB of space on your hard drive, while the 64-bit version requires at least 2GB of RAM
and 20GB of space. If you’re already running Windows Vista or Windows 7, you can probably upgrade to Win-
dows 8 without much trouble.
Next, you need to verify that your favorite programs and PC peripherals are compatible with Windows 8. To do
so, open your Web browser and navigate to Microsoft’s Compatibility Center for Windows 8 Release Preview (at
go.pcworld.com/compatibilityctr). Here you can type in the name of your keyboard, printer, or other PC acces-
sory to see whether it will operate under Windows 8. In some cases the Compatibility Center may provide a link
to driver software that you need to download.
Check Windows Device Manager for the full list of devices you use. If you’re upgrading from Windows XP, select
Start, right-click My Computer, choose Properties, click the Hardware tab, and then click the Device Manager but-
ton. If you’re using Vista or Windows 7, click Start, type device manager, and press <Enter>. You needn’t verify
that all your devices are compatible, but make sure that your display, audio, and networking devices will work
with Windows 8.
Which version of Windows 8 should you install? Four versions are available: Windows 8, Windows 8 Pro, Win-
dows 8 Enterprise, and Windows 8 RT. Enterprise is meant for business enterprise use, and RT is designed spe-
cifically for Windows tablets, so that leaves most PC owners with two options: Windows 8 and Windows 8 Pro.
The Pro version includes a few extra features that serious PC users may appreciate (such as BitLocker encryp-
tion and the ability to use the Remote Desktop feature as both client and host). If you run Windows 7 Profes-
sional or Ultimate, and you want to keep your data intact, your only option is to upgrade to Windows 8 Pro.
If you don’t mind losing your data, you can perform a fresh install of Windows 8, and that’s the next decision
you face: whether to perform a fresh install of Windows 8 or simply to upgrade Windows. The upgrade process
is faster and easier than performing a fresh install, and Windows will automatically preserve your settings, ap-
plications, and data for use in Windows 8. Of course, you’ll also carry over a lot of excess baggage in the form
of old data, backups, and applications that have fallen into disuse and now just take up hard drive space. If you
prefer a clean start, opt for a fresh install of Windows 8; but be sure to back up all your important data and criti-
cal device drivers first, so you can get back to work as soon as possible. This guide applies to both installation
procedures (except where noted).
23
Personalizing Windows
If you don’t like Windows 8 out of the box, you can customize it, with some exceptions. Perhaps the most con-
troversial exception is the fact that you can’t set Windows to boot directly to the desktop, though third-party
utilities may enable this.
Since the Start screen consists of groups of tiles, moving your favorite or most commonly used tiles to the left
side of the screen is pretty easy. You can also specify the tile size (normal or double-wide) and turn off live-tile
updates if you find them distracting. In addition, you can group tiles by program type, such as business applica-
tions, games, and so on.
One configuration option that Microsoft has buried in the past is the startup configuration. In older versions of
Windows, customizing which applications launched on startup required entering the Msconfig system-config-
uration utility. In Windows 8, you can select which applications launch at boot-up with the new Startup tab in
Task Manager, which you can easily launch in the simplified Start menu.
Some customization configurations are less obvious. One example concerns the games you might buy from
Valve Software’s Steam download service. When you install a game from Steam, the procedure asks you wheth-
er to create a desktop shortcut. But that shortcut isn’t an application shortcut; it’s actually a URL, which points
to the local Steamapps folder where the game is installed. If you right-click a URL shortcut, you’ll find no option
to pin it to the Start screen. Instead, you have to copy the shortcut to the Start Menu folder (yes, it’s still called
the ‘Start Menu’ folder), typically in C:\Users\user folder\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu.
Desktop customization is also available, except for the obvious lack of Start-menu tweaks. The taskbar is pres-
ent, as it was in Windows 7, and you can pin applications to it as before.
28
Hardware and Devices
The base PC hardware requirements for Windows 8 are the same as they were for Windows 7—perhaps even
a little less stringent. That means Windows 8 should run more effectively on, for example, machines using the
latest Intel Atom processors, as we might see on some Windows 8 tablets.
Beyond the basics, Windows 8 supports new hardware, the most obvious being touch-enabled hardware. Of
course, Windows 7 supported touch, but it never let you forget that touch was a bolted-on feature. In contrast,
the touch interface is as much a part of Windows 8 as a keyboard and mouse are. Windows 8 supports full ten-
point multitouch, including support for multifinger and even two-handed gestures.
You’ll start to see standard clamshell laptops with ten-point touchscreens. Touch enables casual browsing and
media consumption more easily than a mouse and keyboard do. New laptops without touch-enabled LCDs will
have ten-point multitouch touchpads that support edge detection. Working with such a touchpad is merely an
extension of using a Windows 7 touchpad, so you can use one of these new touchpads just as you did an older
one, if you prefer, or you can take advantage of the new capabilities.
What seems to be missing at this point is a range of desktop displays supporting ten-point multitouch. PC
companies are readying a number of all-in-one systems with touch, but traditional desktop systems with touch
displays, as well as stand-alone touch-enabled displays, seem to be nowhere in sight.
In addition to clamshell laptops with touch, we’ll see more convertible laptops with touch displays that either
fold over the back of the system or detach from the keyboard to become a tablet
HP Envy Ultrabook 4
35
What’s New in Security
The new Start screen in Windows 8 and apps will likely be the first changes you’ll notice, but those aren’t the
only things that are new. Microsoft is also making some serious security enhancements to help keep your sys-
tem safer and to improve Windows’ ability to combat viruses and malware. It just may be the biggest improve-
ment to Windows security yet.
Antivirus Comes Preinstalled
For the first time in the history of Windows, you’ll enjoy protection from viruses, spyware, Trojan horses, root-
kits, and other malware from the very first day you turn on your Windows PC—without spending a cent. Win-
dows 8 comes with an updated version of Windows Defender that includes traditional antivirus functions in ad-
dition to the spyware protection and other security features that it has offered since Windows Vista. Windows
Defender now provides similar protection—and a similar look and feel—to that of the free Microsoft Security
Essentials antivirus program, which Microsoft has offered to users as an optional download since 2009.
The updated Windows Defender resembles Microsoft Security Essentials.
Since Windows Defender will provide at least basic virus and malware protection, purchasing yearly antivirus
subscriptions (such as from McAfee or Norton) or downloading a free antivirus package (like AVG or Avast) is
optional, whereas before it was pretty much required if you wanted to stay virus-free. Of course, you may dis-
able Windows Defender and use another antivirus utility that promises better protection and more features,
but at least everyone will have basic protection by default.
Introduction to MS Windows XP 3
2009 Centre for Educational Technology, University of Cape Town
What is Windows XP?
Windows XP is a computer operating system and graphical user interface (GUI), which
enables you to work with a wide variety of programs on your computer, often simultaneously.
Windows XP is itself a special computer program that communicates your instructions to the
actual computer hardware, and displays the results.
Some of the key features of Windows XP are:
Windows within Windows
A Window refers to a rectangular area of the screen, within which you may view program
folders and files, or display file contents such as documents, spreadsheets, and graphic
images. A window can occupy part of the screen, can be maximised to fill the entire screen,
or can be minimised so that it is no longer visible but remains active and is easily re-
accessed.
The Desktop
The Desktop gives you access to everything you need in Windows XP. It occupies the entire
screen, and unlike a window, it can’t be reduced in size. The desktop consists of a coloured
or patterned background, containing small pictures called Icons that represent programs or
data stores. Double-clicking on an icon opens the corresponding program or file inside a
window.
The icons that are visible on your desktop depend on choices made at installation. In the UCT
labs, you will usually see icons for
y My Computer (the gateway to your computer’s drives, or data storage areas)
y Recycle Bin (a temporary “trashcan” that holds files you want to delete)
Introduction to MS Windows XP 4
2009 Centre for Educational Technology, University of Cape Town
The Taskbar
The Taskbar lies across the bottom edge of your screen. The Start button on the left provides
access to all the programs, data files, and other features available on your computer. When
you open a program or file, a corresponding rectangular icon will be displayed on your taskbar
- even if the program has been minimised and is no longer visible on your screen. To access
that program, you just need to click its icon on the taskbar!
In this example, two windows are open; the Control Panel window (which is slightly darker in
colour) is currently active.
The Start menu
When you click on the Start button, a set of menu options is displayed. The contents will vary
depending on your computer setup and most frequently accessed programs. If you click on
the All Programs option, you’ll see a list of all the programs installed on your computer –
even those that don’t have icons on the desktop.
Press the [ESC] (escape) key to close the menu.
If you need help
One of the menu options displayed when you click the Start button, is labelled Help and
Support. If you select this option, a Help window will open. To get help on a specific topic,
type a word or phrase in the blank space at the top left of the window and then click the
search arrow; alternatively, you can click to browse any of the Help topics listed in the
window. Click the X in the top right corner to close the Help window.
Introduction to MS Windows XP 5
2009 Centre for Educational Technology, University of Cape Town
Using your mouse
The mouse is your most useful tool when working with Windows! It allows you to quickly
select and run programs by simply clicking a button.
It all clicks into place
You can use your mouse in a number of different ways in Windows:
1. Pointing Move your mouse so that the cursor points to an item on the screen.
2. Clicking Hold the mouse still, and click the left mouse button once. Clicking
usually selects an object (highlighting it) or opens a menu or
window.
3. Double-clicking Hold the mouse still and click the left mouse button twice in quick
succession. Double-clicking is usually used to open a program or
file, or to expand a folder so that you can see its contents.
4. Right-clicking Hold the mouse still, and click the right mouse button once. Right-
clicking usually opens a context-sensitive menu that provides you
with a set of relevant options.
5. Dragging Position your mouse on an object, hold down the left mouse button,
and drag the object before releasing the button.
Choosing or selecting?
Selecting an item on your desktop means that you click on it once with the left mouse button,
to highlight the object.
Choosing an item means that you double-click it with the left mouse button, so that it is not
only selected but also opened. You can achieve the same result by selecting the item and
then pressing [ENTER] on the keyboard.
Practice exercise
With the Desktop visible:
1. Point to an item and click on it once. Notice how it becomes highlighted.
2. Drag one of your icons to a different point on the screen.
3. Point the mouse to a blank area of the desktop. Right-click to open a pop-up menu,
and use your mouse to select the option for arranging icons by name.
4. Right-click on the My Computer icon to view its pop-up menu. Click an empty area on
the screen or else press [ESC] on the keyboard to close the menu.
5. Double-click on the My Computer icon to open its window. Then click the X in the top
right corner to close it again.
Introduction to MS Windows XP 6
2009 Centre for Educational Technology, University of Cape Town
Logging in and out
All the computers in the UCT labs are linked to a network. You must log in before you use a
computer – this process identifies you as a legitimate user. After you’ve logged in, you’ll be
able to access your files even if you created them using a different computer.
To log in
The login window should be visible on the screen. If the screensaver is currently active, then
just move the mouse slightly to return the login window to view.
1. Type your login name (usually your student number) in the Username field of the
dialog box.
2. Type your password on the Password field of the dialogue box.
3. Click on the OK button or else press [ENTER].
4. The Windows XP desktop will appear. In some labs you may then have to click
another button to show that you accept the lab rules (such as no food or drink, and no
cell phones).
To log out
After you’ve finished working, you must log out so that the next user of that computer won’t be
able to access your personal files and email, or use your print credits.
1. Click on the Start button on the taskbar. You will see an option to Log Off, as well as
an option to shut down (i.e. turn off) the computer.
2. Click on the Log Off button. The system will ask you to confirm that you are logging
off. The network login box will then appear for the next user to log in. (Note: Don’t use
the Shut Down option, or the next user will have to wait for the computer to start up
again, which can take some time.)
Practice exercise
1. Log in to the network using your own user name and password.
2. Log out correctly.
3. Now log in again – well done!
Introduction to MS Windows XP 7
2009 Centre for Educational Technology, University of Cape Town
Working with windows
Let’s start by identifying the various components of a typical window, and how they are used.
Title bar
The top line of the window is called the Title bar, and displays the name of the corresponding
program or folder. You can move an open window to a different part of the screen by dragging
its title bar. If more than one window is open on the screen, then clicking on the title bar (or
inside the window) will make a window active - which is indicated by a darkened title bar.
There are three control buttons at the right end of the title bar, which are activated by clicking
on them:
y Minimise (on the left) keeps your program open, but reduces it to a rectangular
icon on the taskbar.
y Restore / maximise (in the middle) reduces the size of a full-screen window, or
maximises a window that is not full-screen.
y Close (on the right) closes the window or program.
Menu bar and viewing options
One row below the title bar is the Menu bar. If you click a word on the menu bar, a menu of
additional choices appears. An arrow to the right of a menu option indicates that it has a
submenu.
Introduction to MS Windows XP 8
2009 Centre for Educational Technology, University of Cape Town
Some menu options can also be activated though a keyboard shortcut, such as [CTRL] + [C]
for Copy. In this case the shortcut will be shown on the right of the menu option.
If you accidentally open a menu and wish to close it, simply click on the title bar; or on a blank
space within the window; or press [ESC] on the keyboard.
Navigating inside a window
If you can’t see all the information contained in a window, then use the Scrollbar at the bottom
or right edge to view more. You can “move” the contents displayed in the window using the
arrows at each end of a scroll bar: for example, clicking on the bottom arrow on the vertical
scroll bar will reveal what lies below the bottom border of the window. Alternatively, you can
drag the Scrollbox within the scrollbar to see hidden areas of the window.
If a window is too big or too small for displaying the items it contains, then you can resize it.
Hold your cursor over a border until it becomes a double arrow. Then drag the border to the
size you want.
Practice exercise
1. Open the My Computer window by double-clicking on its icon.
2. Move the My Computer window to a new position on the screen by dragging its title
bar.
3. Click on the View menu to see the available options.
4. Change your View option to Details. Then change it back to Icons.
5. Practice maximising, restoring and closing your My Computer window.
Introduction to MS Windows XP 9
2009 Centre for Educational Technology, University of Cape Town
Starting and exiting applications
An application is a program that you use to do work with your computer – common examples
are a spreadsheet, a word processor, or a database. There are two different ways that you
can start up a Windows application:
Using icons
If the application you want to use has an icon, either on the desktop or inside a window, then
you just need to double-click the icon and the program will start. An example is the My
Computer icon on your desktop, used for viewing the drives and folders on your computer.
Using the Programs menu
Most of the applications on your computer probably won’t have desktop icons associated with
them – the desktop would get too cluttered! So you need to be able to start applications using
the Programs menu:
1. Click on the Start button
2. Point to the All Programs option on the Start menu. The Programs
menu will appear.
3. Click the name of the application that you want to use, and the corresponding
program will open in a new window.
Note that some applications (such as MS Office) consist of several related programs which
may be grouped together in a submenu. If this is the case, then the application name on the
Programs menu will be followed by an arrow. Move the mouse pointer over the arrow to see
the submenu, then click on the required program.
Practice exercise
1. Click on the Start button.
2. Select All Programs.
3. Navigate your way to the Microsoft Word program.
4. Open Microsoft Word.
5. Close Microsoft Word.

Introduction to MS Windows XP 10
2009 Centre for Educational Technology, University of Cape Town
Working with multiple windows
One of the most important features of Windows XP is its multitasking capability. This allows
you to run more than one application at the same time. What’s more, within one application
you could have several files open, each in its own window. For example, you might have both
MSWord and MS Excel open at the same time, and within MS Word you might be working on
two different document files, each in its own window.
Moving between applications
Each open window (even if it has been minimised) is represented by a rectangular icon on the
taskbar at the bottom of your screen. The icon for the currently active window usually appears
darker, and looks as if it has been “pressed in”.
To switch between open applications, just click on the taskbar icon for the application that you
want to switch to, and Windows will display its window on top of anything else that may be on
your screen.
Arranging windows
When you have multiple windows open, some of them may be hidden by others. Windows XP
helps you to arrange them so that all your open windows are visible.
Cascade Open windows lie on top of each other, with the title bar of each one
visible. To access a window that is not at the top of the cascade, just click
its title bar.
Tile horizontally Windows are resized so that they fit one above the other on the screen.
Tile vertically Windows are resized so that they fit side by side on the screen.
To change the way your windows are arranged, right-click on a blank area of the taskbar and
choose the option that you want.
Cutting and pasting between applications
Windows allows you to cut or copy material from one application and paste it into another. For
example, you can copy text from a page displayed in your web browser, and paste it into a
Word document. Similarly, you could copy an Excel chart into a report you are writing in
Word.
You would do it like this:
1. Open the application window from which you want to copy material, and select the
text or data to be copied.
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2. Choose the Copy command from the toolbar, the menu bar, or a
pop-up menu.
3. Open the application window into which you want to copy the
selected text or data.
4. Position the cursor where the copy should be inserted.
5. Choose the Paste command from the toolbar, the menu bar, or a pop-up menu.
(Some applications also have a Paste Special option which lets you specify in more
detail how the material should be pasted.
If the Copy and Paste commands aren’t available on a menu or toolbar, then you can use the
following keyboard shortcuts:
Copy : [CTRL] + [C]
Cut : [CTRL] + [X]
Paste : [CTRL] + [V]
Practice exercise
1. Open both the Control Panel and My Computer.
2. Switch between the open windows.
3. Display them in vertically tiled view.
4. Close all the open windows.
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Using Windows Explorer
Windows Explorer is the file management tool that comes with Windows XP. It gives you the
ability to rename, copy, move or delete the folders and files on your computer’s drives.
Folders and files are displayed hierarchically within Windows Explorer. Folders can contain
subfolders as well as files.
Opening Windows Explorer
To start Windows Explorer, find the My Computer icon on your desktop or the Start menu.
Right-click to display the pop-up menu, and choose Explore.
The window that opens will look similar to the example below. The title bar at the top of the
window shows “My Computer”. All the drives and other storage devices associated with this
computer are shown on in the right hand pane.
Note that when you are working on the UCT network, you must NOT store your files on the C:
drive. One of the network drives (usually the F: drive) will be identified by your student
number, and has been allocated for your personal use. Because it is a network drive, it is
accessible to you from any PC on the network.
To navigate through the directory structure and locate files that you want to open, copy, move
or delete, you would do as follows:
1. Double-click on the required drive or removable device (floppy disk or flash drive) to
display its contents.
2. Within the selected drive or device, double-click on any folder to view the subfolders
and files that it contains.
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The title bar at the top of the window will then display the name of the currently selected
folder. On the left side of the window is a list of all the drives and folders on your computer.
y On the right side of the window is a list of all the folders and files located inside the drive
or folder that is currently selected in the left pane.
In the left pane:
y A plus sign “+” next to a folder indicates that it contains subfolders that are not currently
visible. Clicking on the plus sign (or double-clicking on the folder name) will reveal the
subfolders.
y A minus sign “-“ next to a folder indicates that all its subfolders are currently visible. Click
on the minus sign (or double-click on the folder name) to collapse the subfolders and hide
them from view.
y Indentation levels in the left pane reflect the folder directory structure.
You can drag the vertical line between the left and right panes to make them wider or
narrower.
If there are too many entries to be displayed in a pane, then you can use the vertical scroll bar
to view the hidden entries.
Selecting folders or files
In the left pane, click on a drive or folder that you want to select. Its contents will be displayed
in the right pane. Similarly, you would click on a file in the right pane to select it.
To select a group of adjacent files or folders:
y Click on the first file (or folder) in the group that you want to select. It will become
highlighted.
y Hold down the [SHIFT] key and click on the last file (or folder) in the group that you want
to select. All the items between the first and the last file (or folder) selected will also be
highlighted.
y Release the [SHIFT] key.
To select separate files and folders:
y Click on the first file (or folder) that you want to select. It will become highlighted.
y Hold down the [CTRL] key and click on each of the other files (or folders) that you want to
select. All the items that have been selected will be highlighted.
y Release the [CTRL] key.
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Creating a new folder
To create a new folder in Windows Explorer:
1. In the left pane, highlight the folder within which you want to create a new folder. If
you don’t want the new folder to be a sub-folder of an existing folder, then select the
Drive (such as F:) that the new folder should be in.
2. Select the File menu and hold the mouse pointer over the arrow on the right of the
New command. Choose Folder from the sub-menu that appears. A highlighted folder
icon called [New Folder] will appear at the bottom of the right pane.
3. Type the name that you want to give the new folder, and press [ENTER]. Your new
folder has been created!
Saving a new file
Whenever you start a new task using an application such as Word or Excel, you’ll need to
save your work in a file. The process for saving a new file is basically the same for all
Windows applications; the examples used here are based on Word.
1. At the top of the screen, click on the File menu, and then select the
Save As option from the drop-down menu. (If your window shows a
task bar with buttons, then you can click instead on the icon of a stiffy disk.)
Note that in Office 2007, the File menu has been replaced by the Office Button.
A dialogue box will open.
2. In the Save In field, use the drop-down arrow to select the drive and folder where you
want your file to be stored.
3. In the File Name field, type the name that you want to give your new file.
4. Click the Save button. It’s as easy as that!

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Renaming folders or files
1. Highlight the folder or file that you want to rename.
2. Select the File menu and choose the Rename command. Alternatively, you can right-
click on the current file name to get a pop-up menu, and then select Rename.
3. The current folder or file name is highlighted. Type the new name and press
[ENTER].
Be careful when renaming files that you keep the appropriate file extension (such as “.docx”
for an MS Word 2007 file). If you change or delete a file extension then you may not be able
to re-open the file. If your file extensions are not visible then Windows will automatically retain
them for you.
Copying folders or files
Within Windows Explorer, there are lots of different options for copying folders and files!
Commonly used methods for doing this are: right-clicking, using a toolbar icon, using a menu,
using the keyboard, and dragging with the mouse.
Before you can copy, the file (or folder) that you want to copy must be selected. It’s also a bit
easier if your target folder is visible in the left pane. So I recommend that you first click on the
folder containing the file to be copied, and ensure that the file you want is visible in the right
pane. Then scroll through the folders in the left pane until the target folder is visible. Now you
can see the file you want to copy on the right, and its target folder on the left.
y Right-clicking:
1. In the right pane, select the folders or files you want to copy.
2. Right-click to display the pop-up menu, and select Copy.
3. Move the mouse pointer to the folder in the left pane that you want to
copy to.
4. Right-click and select Paste from the pop-up menu.
y Toolbar icon:
1. In the right pane, select the folders or files you want to copy.
2. Click the Copy To icon on the toolbar.
3. The Copy Items dialogue box will open.
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Renaming folders or files
1. Highlight the folder or file that you want to rename.
2. Select the File menu and choose the Rename command. Alternatively, you can right-
click on the current file name to get a pop-up menu, and then select Rename.
3. The current folder or file name is highlighted. Type the new name and press
[ENTER].
Be careful when renaming files that you keep the appropriate file extension (such as “.docx”
for an MS Word 2007 file). If you change or delete a file extension then you may not be able
to re-open the file. If your file extensions are not visible then Windows will automatically retain
them for you.
Copying folders or files
Within Windows Explorer, there are lots of different options for copying folders and files!
Commonly used methods for doing this are: right-clicking, using a toolbar icon, using a menu,
using the keyboard, and dragging with the mouse.
Before you can copy, the file (or folder) that you want to copy must be selected. It’s also a bit
easier if your target folder is visible in the left pane. So I recommend that you first click on the
folder containing the file to be copied, and ensure that the file you want is visible in the right
pane. Then scroll through the folders in the left pane until the target folder is visible. Now you
can see the file you want to copy on the right, and its target folder on the left.
y Right-clicking:
1. In the right pane, select the folders or files you want to copy.
2. Right-click to display the pop-up menu, and select Copy.
3. Move the mouse pointer to the folder in the left pane that you want to
copy to.
4. Right-click and select Paste from the pop-up menu.
y Toolbar icon:
1. In the right pane, select the folders or files you want to copy.
2. Click the Copy To icon on the toolbar.
3. The Copy Items dialogue box will open.

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4. Select the destination folder and click the Copy button.
y Menu bar:
1. In the right pane, select the folders or files you want to
copy.
2. Click Edit on the menu bar, and choose Copy from the list
of options.
3. Select the destination folder. Click Edit on the menu bar
and then Paste. (Alternatively, you can choose Copy to
Folder, which opens the dialogue box shown under the
preceding Toolbar option.)
y Keyboard:
1. In the right pane, select the folders or files you want to copy. Press [CTRL] + [C] on
your keyboard.
2. Select the destination folder. Press [CTRL] + [V] on your keyboard.
y Dragging:
1. In the right pane, select the folders or files you want to copy. Click and hold down the
left mouse button.
2. If you are copying them to another location on a different drive, then drag them to the
destination folder and release the mouse button.
3. If you are copying them to another location on the same drive, then hold down the
letter [C] on the keyboard while you drag them to the destination folder. You can then
release the letter [C] and the mouse button.
Ensure that you drop the copied files exactly on the destination folder – this will be
highlighted as you drag over it. If you “lose” your files, it’s a good idea to check in the
folders above and below the destination folder, to see if the copied files landed there.
Remember that you can use the Undo function to undo a command you have just
executed, including copying files.
Moving folders or files
Using Windows Explorer, you can move folders and files using similar methods to those
shown above for copying:
y Right-click, and select Cut (instead of Copy) followed by Paste.
y Use the Cut and Paste icons on the toolbar.
y Use the Cut and Paste options on the Edit menu.
y Use [CTRL]+[X] followed by [CTRL]+[V] on your keyboard
y Drag your files to the new location. If the new location is on a different drive then hold
down the [SHIFT] key while dragging, otherwise Windows will make a copy, and you will
still need to delete the original file.
Again, your task will be easier if you first make the destination folder visible in the left pane
before you select the files that you want to move from the right pane.
So what is the difference between copying and moving a file? When you copy a file, the
original file remains in the source folder, so you end up with two copies of the file, one in the
source folder and another in the destination folder. When you move a file, the original

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disappears from the source folder, and you are left with only one copy of the file, in the
destination folder.
Deleting folders or files
Deleting files and folders is dangerously easy! Here again, you have several options:
y Select the file or folder, and click the Delete icon on your toolbar.
y Select the file or folder, and click the [DEL] key on your keyboard.
y Click File on the menu bar and select Delete.
y Right-click the file or folder and select Delete from the pop-up menu.
y Select the file or folder and drag it to the Recycle bin on your desktop.
When you delete a file or folder, Windows will ask you to confirm the deletion. Make sure that
you have the right file before clicking Yes.
1 Warning: It’s not always possible to recover files that you have deleted, especially if they
were deleted from a network drive. Be very careful not to delete files that you may need again
in the future! Remember that when you delete a folder, you also delete any files in that folder.
Practice exercise
1. Open Windows Explorer and identify your F: drive.
2. Create the folder F:\Test
3. Create the sub-folder F:\Test\Sub
4. Delete the folder and the sub-folder that you have just created.
Revised: 12/13/2016 Page 4 of 19
Introduction
Microsoft Windows 10 provides a variety of accessibility tools that makes it easier to see, hear, and use
your computer. For instance, the Ease of Access center provides a variety of such as a magnifier as well
as mouse and keyboard accessibility options. You can also utilize tools such as the High Contrast tool
and Windows Narrator to make your Windows 10 computer more accessible.
Learning Objectives
After completing the instructions in this booklet, you will be able to:
 Access the Ease of Access center.
 Set mouse & keyboard accessibility options
 Utilize the High Contrast feature
 Enable the Windows Narrator
Revised: 12/13/2016 Page 4 of 19
Introduction
Microsoft Windows 10 provides a variety of accessibility tools that makes it easier to see, hear, and use
your computer. For instance, the Ease of Access center provides a variety of such as a magnifier as well
as mouse and keyboard accessibility options. You can also utilize tools such as the High Contrast tool
and Windows Narrator to make your Windows 10 computer more accessible.
Learning Objectives
After completing the instructions in this booklet, you will be able to:
 Access the Ease of Access center.
 Set mouse & keyboard accessibility options
 Utilize the High Contrast feature
 Enable the Windows Narrator
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Windows Narrator
The Windows Narrator reads text on your PC screen aloud and describes events such as notifications or
calendar appointments so you can use your PC without a display. The following explains how to enable
the Narrator:
1. Navigate to the Ease of Access center in Windows Settings.
2. Click Narrator.
Figure 5 - Click Narrator
3. To enable the Narrator, click Narrator Off. The Narrator will be turned on and will begin
narrating on your computer.
Figure 6 – Enable the Narrator
4. Under the Voice section, you can:
a. Change the Narrator Voice (See Figure 7).
b. Adjust the narrator Speed (See Figure 7).
c. Adjust the Ŷarrator’s Pitch (See Figure 7).
Figure 7 - The Voice Section
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5. The Sounds you hear section allows you:
a. Enable Read hints for controls and buttons (See Figure 8).
b. Enable sounds for Characters that you type (See Figure 8).
c. Enable sounds for the Words you type (See Figure 8).
d. Lower the volume of other apps when the Narrator is running (See Figure 8).
e. Enable audio cues (See Figure 8).
Figure 8 - Sounds you hear
6. The Cursor and keys section allows you to:
a. Highlight the cursor (See Figure 9).
b. Have the insertion point follow the Narrator (See Figure 9).
c. Activate keys on a touch keyboard when lifting fingers off the keyboard
(See Figure 9).
Figure 9 - Cursor and Keys


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